Which Stud Welding Process?

Depending on the heat input, various processes and process variants with different significance have developed. The different processes of drawn arc stud welding can be differentiated according to:

Type of arc ignition

  • capacitor discharge stud welding
  • drawn arc stud welding

Both processes differ in the ignition geometry of the bolts, the process sequence, the equipment technology and (partly) in the field of application. Both processes use direct current - but different energy sources, see Figure 2.

Type of energy source used

  • Capacitor discharge
  • Transformer / rectifier, inverter

the length of the welding time

  • approx. 1 - 3 ms -> capacitor discharge
  • approx. 5 - 100 ms -> short-cycle ignition
  • > 100 ms -> drawn arc ignition

or the welding pool protection used

  • without weld pool protection (NP - No Protection)
  • with inert gas (SG - Shielding Gas)
  • with ceramic ring (CF - Ceramic ferrule)

Depending on the customer, component, material and process requirements, different stud welding processes can be used and their decisive quality criteria can be used. The optimum working ranges of the different stud welding processes differ, among other things, in the diameter of the welding element, in the materials and component surfaces used, the sheet thickness and working position, the required connected load and the process requirements (automation, quality and reproducibility, workshop or construction site conditions), etc.




ISO 4063




Power Source



Capacitor Discharge

Stud Diameter d

M6 – M24, Ø 3 – 25 mm

M3 – M10, Ø 3 – 10 mm

M3 – M8, Ø 3 – 8 mm

Stud Weld Base Geometry

Ignition Angle 22,5°

Ignition Angle 7°

Ignition Tip, Flange
Ignition Angle 3°

Stud Type ISO 13918

PD (MD) / RD / UD / ID / SD

PS / US / IS

PT / UT / IT

Min. Base Material Thickness s

0,25 d; > 1 mm

0,125 d; > 0,6 mm

0,1 d; > 6 mm

Welding Current I-max [A]

300 - 3.000



Welding Time t [ms]

> 100

< 100

1 - 3

Electrical Connection

400V, 32 to 125 AT (slow blow)

400V, 32 to 125 AT (slow blow)

230 V

Weld Base Protection

Shielding Gas (SG) / CF

none (NP) / Shielding Gas (SG)

None (NP)

Base Material
(ISO 14555)

Steel, Galvanized Steel

Steel, Galvanized Steel

Steel, Galvanized Steel


Stud Welding

Drawn Arc

Capacitor Discharge

with ceramic ferrule

with shielding gas

Short-Cycle / SC

Stud Diameter

Ø Stud ≤ 8 mm

Ø Stud 8 - 12 mm

max. M10

Ø Stud > 12 mm

max. M16

max. M12

Base Material

Unalloyed Steel, Mild Steel

Stainless Steel, corrosion free

Aluminium / AlMg3

max. M10


max. M6

Brass / CuZn37

max. M6

Base Material

Rust Film, Scale, Primer


Base Material Thickness s

Sheet Metal
s app. 0,6 - 2 mm
s > 0,1 x d

s > 1/4 x d

s > 1/8 x d
thermal marking

Sheet Metal
s ca. 0,6 - 2 mm
s > 0,1 x d

s > 1/4 x d
thermal marking

Heavier Plate Material
s > 5 mm
s > 0,1 x d



High Process and Quality Requirements


Connection 230 V

max. M8
HBS Visar 650

max. M8
HBS Visar 650

max. M8
HBS Visar 650

Construction Site Use

precisely shaped
welding bead

max. M10

With Shielding Gas

Spatter Ring

Thin Material no rear side marking


well suited

The stud diameter, stud base ignition geometry, application and weld pool protection determine the welding process.

suitable with limitations

not suitable